The centre-back played the full 90 minutes in Barca’s defeat on Saturday, but the club have since confirmed he sustained a muscular problem during the match.
Pique is expected to miss the league games with Almeria and Real Valladolid, while he could also be a doubt for the second leg of Barca’s Champions League last-16 tie with Manchester City on March 12.
It is not the first time that the 27-year-old has spent time out this season, after struggling with a groin problem and a hernia earlier in the campaign.
“Gerard Pique will be out of action for two weeks after suffering a minor thigh injury against Real Sociedad,” Barca confirmed in a statement on the club’s official website.
“Pique also missed the away game to Betis in November with groin trouble, the same problem that led to him being dropped as a precautionary measure for the games with Osasuna and Celta.”
The 37-year-old has made 33 appearances in all competitions for Barca this season, scoring four goals, and his absence could be a big loss for head coach Gerardo Martino with little cover in defence as they three points behind Real Madrid in the Primera Liga.